Gaseous oxidation product of carbon. Significant, natural greenhouse gas.
Short form of carbon dioxide
Carbon dioxide lasers are among the most common types of laser in industrial and medicinal applications. The CO2 laser is a gas laser
whose infrared light, with a wavelength of around 10 µm, is produced by carbon dioxide. In addition, nitrogen, and usually also Helium, are required as a component of the gaseous medium for operation. Carbon dioxide lasers offer a wide power spectrum from several mW to several hundred kW in continuous operation and a high efficiency of up to 20 percent. With these properties, they are particularly suitable for cutting, scribing, perforating and welding different foil materials. The first available gas laser was a CO2 laser.
A composite film consists of two or more layers of different materials. This permits the combination of different material properties such as strength, vapour and gas tightness, printability and surface appearance. Composite films can consist of up to 14 layers.
Heat exchanger provided for cooling refrigerants.
Unit of air permeability of paper as defined by the Cooperation Centre for Scientific Research Relative to Tobacco. It describes the volume of air in cubic centimetres per minute which passes through an area of one square centimetre at a pressure difference of 1 kPa. This ventilation of a paper can be systematically increased by means of laser perforation. In this case, an online perforation within the cigarette machine or an offline perforation via an independent system can be used.
Purified water freed from dissolved mineral substances. It can replace distilled water where there are fewer requirements for purity. The use of demineralised cooling water prevents limescale deposits in the cooler.
Water freed from dissolved, solid and gaseous impurities by means of slow evaporation and condensation.
A source of radiation that generates coherent light. This allows focused beams in the micrometer range. The term is an English acronym, which stands for "Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation". This term lacks one essential aspect of the functionality of a laser, namely an optical
resonator. The resonator is filled with a laser medium which generates a specific radiation stimulated by pumping energy.
Laser system classified as non-hazardous. Normally completely enclosed in a housing and equipped with appropriate safety devices.
Indicates the highest hazard class for laser. Even scattered reflective radiation can cause injury to eyes or skin. Class 4 lasers are capable of igniting combustible materials. Most of the laser systems used in industry are included in this safety class.
Production with laser as a tool.
Active substance generating coherent laser radiation. Depending on the physical state of the medium, lasers are divided into solid-state lasers, gas lasers, liquid lasers and plasma lasers.
The intensity of laser light is not homogeneously distributed across the cross section, but forms regular patterns due to the inevitable diffraction of light. Mathematically speaking, these laser modes correspond to the inherent solutions of the optical resonator
Laser protective glasses:
in English - laser scribing Examples of application include: Manufacture of opening aids on packaging.
Optical shutter that can deliberately prevent the emission of laser beams.
Oriented polypropylene film. Polypropylene film stretched in longitudinal, transverse or both directions. Stretching improves the material properties of transparency, resistance to cold, gas tightness, as well as mechanical properties, including, where applicable, anisotropic ones. In addition, it can be used to reduce thickness and basis weight.
An optical resonant circuit, in which the light travels back and forth between two mirrors with a common optical axis. The distance between the mirrors exceeds their diameter many times over. This keeps only the radiation in the resonator, which spreads almost or completely parallel to the optical axis. In a beam bundle thus parallelized, the part whose wavelength is in an integer ratio to the double mirror distance is amplified.
The polymer polyamide produced by polycondensation is better known under the generalised brand name of nylon. The area of application ranges from synthetic fibres and packaging material to expansion dowels.
The polyolefin polyethylene, which is milky and cloudy in its pure state, is produced in two versions, as PE-LD and PE-HD. It displays excellent resistance to acids, bases, alcohols and esters. It reacts only very slightly with plant oils, aldehydes and ketones. Its resistance to mineral oils, aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons and oxidants is limited. Polyethylene is not suitable for use with halogenated hydrocarbons.
High-density polyethylene is produced using the low-pressure process and is therefore also known in German as ND-PE. The polyolefin has a temperature range of -60 to 90 °C, briefly up to 120 °C, and a higher tensile strength than @PE-LD, also in relation to its weight. In addition, PE-HD films have a lower permeability for water vapour, oxygen and carbon dioxide than PE-LD films.
Low-density polyethylene, also known in German as HD-PE, is produced using the high-pressure process. This is the original, older manufacturing process, resulting in a plastic with a lower tensile strength than PE-HD and a lower temperature range of up to 60 °C.
Polyethylene terephthalate is the most widely used member of the polyester group. This polymer is primarily used for synthetic fibres, beverage packaging and other transparent packaging. PET exists in amorphous and semi-crystalline form. Depending on the size and structure of the crystal, the latter may appear milky-white. Otherwise, the plastic is naturally fully transparent.
Polylactate is a biodegradable polymer, which is used as the second most important material in 3D printing after ABS.
Polymethylmetacrylate, better known under the brand name Plexiglas and as acrylic glass.
Polypropylene is a thermoplastic polymer from the group of polyolefins. In its pure state, it is milky and cloudy like polyethylene, but has a different temperature range from 0 to 160 °C. PP is therefore suitable for packaging as a film or container for liquids and foodstuffs that are hot-filled or heated in the packaging.
Measured variable for the energy contained in an impulse in a pulsed output. Important parameter, for example, in a pulse laser, but also, for example, in electric fence devices.
Temporal extent of a pulse.
Apart from thermoplastic variants, polyurethane is one of the duroplasts, substances that do not soften when exposed to heat. The plastic is suitable for fibre-reinforced materials as well as for foams.
Polyvinyl chloride, widely used as a packaging and construction material. The most frequently used plastic after PE and PP.